Five Main Performance Indicators of Lead-acid Batteries

The performance of lead-acid batteries is evaluated based on several key indicators:

  1. Capacity:
    • Measured in ampere-hours (Ah), capacity indicates the total amount of electrical charge a battery can deliver at a specific discharge rate before its voltage drops to a cut-off level. Higher capacity means the battery can power devices for a longer period.
  2. Voltage:
    • The nominal voltage of a typical lead-acid cell is 2V. Therefore, a 12V battery consists of six cells. The voltage level can be used to assess the state of charge and health of the battery. Consistent voltage levels are crucial for the battery’s efficiency and the proper functioning of connected equipment.
  3. Cycle Life:
    • This refers to the number of complete charge-discharge cycles a battery can undergo before its capacity drops to a specified percentage of its original capacity (typically 80%). Higher cycle life indicates greater durability and long-term cost-effectiveness.
  4. State of Charge (SoC):
    • SoC is a measure of the remaining capacity in the battery, expressed as a percentage of its full capacity. It helps in understanding how much charge is left in the battery and when it needs recharging. Accurate SoC estimation is crucial for battery management and ensuring optimal performance.
  5. Internal Resistance:
    • Internal resistance affects the battery’s efficiency and its ability to deliver current. Lower internal resistance is preferable as it results in less energy loss in the form of heat and ensures better performance, especially under high load conditions. High internal resistance can indicate aging or damage within the battery.

These indicators collectively help in assessing the overall health, efficiency, and suitability of lead-acid batteries for various applications.


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